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Harvard KAU - a reference manual from Karlstad University Library

Personal communications

Information gained through conversations, emails, phones calls, faxes, letters, lecture presentations or interviews may be cited as "personal communication" in your text. Details are usually not included in the reference list but provided as a source in a footnote. It is important to obtain the permission of the person being referred to.

A footnote to an interview in your text:

Björk1 recommends that …


The footnote at the bottom on the page:

1Hans Björk VD KPMG, interview June 14 2006.


A footnote to a lecture in your text: 

Rundhpoints out that ...


The footnote at the bottom on the page:

1Bo Rundh, professor at Karlstad Business School, Karlstad University. Distributionens betydelse [The importance of the distribution], lecture November 30 2016.


N.B. Interviews and surveys which form part of your empirical material are not considered as personal communication. The way they are to be referred to can vary; they can be presented in the body of the text or listed in an attachment. Consult your supervisor.