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Karlstads universitetsbibliotek - ämnesguider

Harvard KAU - a reference manual from Karlstad University Library

Introduction - journal articles

The reference to a journal article is very similar to a reference to a book. Journal and book titles are written in italics in the Harvard system. In the reference list, all authors of the article should be included in the reference, but use et al. in your text  if there are more than two authors.

Note: Minimal capitalisation is recommended for the titles of articles; maximal capitalisation is used for journal titles.


Journal article

In-text citation

... as Donabedian (1988) describes in  ... OR ...according to relevant research (Donabedian 1988) this is the case ...


Reference list

Donabedian, A. (1988). The quality of care: how can it be assessed? Jama, 260(12), 1743-1748.

Journal article with doi

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a unique identifier with a more stable link to a publication than a URL. If a DOI is provided for a source then it should be given in the reference list entry. Date of retrieval is not required if providing a DOI. No concluding full stop is necessary following a DOI.

In-text citation

(Bowden 2009) OR  Bowden (2009)

Reference list

Bowden, J.L. (2009). The process of customer engagement: a conceptual framework. Journal of Marketing Theory & Practice, 17(1), 63-74. doi: 10.2753/MTP1069-6679170105


Journal article without doi

If an article is missing a DOI, you can look it up in this webplace:

Journal article, missing volume

Sometimes there is no volume  indication for certain journals, in that case, just enter the number in brackets.

In-text citation

... according to earlier research (Kragh Jacobsen 2016) ... OR ... as Kragh Jacobsen (2016) mentions ...

Reference list

Kragh Jacobsen, R. (2016). Du tänker med tarmen. Illustrerad vetenskap, (3), 26-33.


Prepublished article online

Articles prepublished online, before printing, get the phrase [epub ahead of print] directly after the article's title. This type of publication may lack data about volume, number or pages. If there is a DOI then it should be stated last in the reference.

In-text citation

(Gawkeet al. 2017)

Reference list

Gawke, J. C., Gorgievski, M. J. & Bakker, A. B. (2017). Personal Costs and Benefits of Employee Intrapreneurship: Disentangling the Employee Intrapreneurship, Well-Being, and Job Performance Relationship [epub ahead of print]. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. doi: 10.1037/ocp0000105

Newspaper article

Referencing newspaper articles is very similar to citing journal articles. Many newspapers are daily publications therefore the date of the newspaper and the page number must be included.

In-text citation

(Jones 2001)

Reference list

Jones, D. (2001). Asmal says life-skills education will be enforced in every school.  Business Day, 22 August, p. 4.

Content may differ between paper and web version so you should have a URL to the article if you read it on the web. If the complete URL becomes very long, you can specify a shortened URL.

In-text citation

(Funabashi 2018)

Reference list

Funabashi, Y. (2018). How Japan might lose out in the Korea talks. New York Times, 11 June. https://www.nytimes.com [2018-06-11]

If there is no author for the article, the reference is placed on the title of the newspaper.